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Pelvic inflammatory Disease (PID)Infection that has spread to the whole pelvic area ( cervix, uterus, tubes and ovaries)...

Pelvic inflammatory Disease (PID)

Infection that has spread to the whole pelvic area ( cervix, uterus, tubes and ovaries)

PID is basically caused by infections ( sxxually transmitted infection) like Chamaydia, Gonorrhea

Signs of PID
👉Low abdominal pain( like cramping, burning sensation)
👉Heavy coloured or not coloured discharge, unpleasant odor.
👉Abnormal bleeding between menstral cycle.
👉Painful in*******se.
🤔👉If the PID or infection gets to the appendix you can get appendicitis
👉 Lead to Ectopic pregnancy

PID is the most uncommon cause of infertility Because it blocks the fallopian tube if not treated

Failure to Recognize or treat PID or treating it late can cause scars, where by even when you treat can still cause Infertility 🤔 due to formation of scars leads to infertility, treat your self properly from infections 👍

10 COMMON SIGNS OF EARLY PREGNANCY1. A missed periodFor most women, a missed period is often the first sign they’ve ente...


1. A missed period

For most women, a missed period is often the first sign they’ve entered the early stages of pregnancy. If a week or more has passed without the start of your period, especially if your cycle is regular, you may be pregnant.

2. Frequent urination

Once you conceive, the amount of blood in your body will increase. As your kidneys work to process the increased amount of liquid, you’ll experience a more frequent need to urinate.

3. Swollen or tender breasts

Early pregnancy hormones may cause increased sensitivity and soreness in breasts. This discomfort is not permanent and usually disappears a few weeks into pregnancy once your body has adjusted to being pregnant.

4. Fatigue

Progesterone levels rise once you become pregnant, which often leads to sleepiness and increased fatigue.

5. Nausea, with or without vomiting

A rise in hormone levels can cause nausea in the early stages of pregnancy. Though pregnancy nausea is often called “morning sickness,” it can occur any time of day.

6. Light spotting and cramping

Light spotting, also known as implantation bleeding, can occur when the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine lining. This can happen about 10 to 14 days after conception, around the same time that you are supposed to have your period. Light spotting may also be accompanied by cramping, which can feel similar to menstrual cramps.

7. Bloating

Heightened hormones in the body can cause you to feel bloated, similar to how you may feel at the beginning of your period.

8. Mood swings

Once your hormone levels begin to rise, you may find yourself more emotional and subject to mood swings.

9. Constipation

The influx of progesterone experienced during pregnancy can slow down your digestive system, causing constipation.

10. Food aversions and sensitivity to smell

Sensitivity to certain smells is a common symptom for pregnant women. You may also find that your tastes have changed for certain types of food.

Any of the above signs can mean you’re pregnant, but there are women who conceive and experience none of them. Likewise, you can experience all ten and not be pregnant. The best way to confirm pregnancy is to schedule an appointment with a provider, preferably your gynecologist.

If you notice a few of the early pregnancy symptoms above and think you may be pregnant, wait one or two days after your missed period and take a pregnancy test. If the test is negative, wait a few more days and take another, just in case the first was a false negative. If the test is positive, schedule an appointment with your Doctor.


NVD ...face presentation ..


Its a ...?


G/A 11.2 W+-1W
Moment ✔


10.3 w+-1W moment ..✔

G/S with yolk sac....

G/S with yolk sac....


Single intra utrine fetus...

Present Yolk sac✔
and fetal pole ✔
with present cardiac flikring...G/A 8.3w +- 1W.


Twins pregnancy of 9 weeks 5days ...


Twins pregnancy ....20 wks


Did you know there are two types of period pain? The first is primary dysmenorrhea, which is the most common type of per...

Did you know there are two types of period pain?

The first is primary dysmenorrhea, which is the most common type of period pain. It's caused by the production of prostaglandins, which cause the uterus to contract and can lead to cramping and pain.

The second type is secondary dysmenorrhea, which is caused by an underlying medical condition such as endometriosis, fibroids, or pelvic inflammatory disease."

Primary dysmenorrhea usually starts a day or two before your period and lasts for a few days. The pain can range from mild to severe and can be accompanied by nausea, diarrhea, and fatigue.

Secondary dysmenorrhea can occur at any time during your menstrual cycle and can be more severe than primary dysmenorrhea. If you experience new or worsening period pain, it's important to talk to your doctor to rule out any underlying medical conditions.

If you're experiencing period pain, don't suffer in silence. Talk to your doctor about what may be the possible cause of your pain.

Its very useful  for all ...👇Pregnancy is usually an exciting time for expectant parents👇 . But pregnancy doesn't always...

Its very useful for all ...👇

Pregnancy is usually an exciting time for expectant parents
👇 . But pregnancy doesn't always end with the anticipated baby . In rare cases , women ( or even men ) believe they are pregnant ,
only to find out that their symptoms were caused not by pregnancy ,
👇 but by something else entirely .

False pregnancy , clinically termed pseudocyesis ,

is the belief that you are expecting a baby when you are not really carrying a child . People with pseudocyesis have many , if not all , symptoms of pregnancy -
- with the exception of an actual fetus . Some men experience a related phenomenon known as couvade , or sympathetic pregnancy . They will develop many of the same symptoms as their pregnant partners , including weight gain , nausea , and backache .

What Causes False Pregnancy ?

Only recently have doctors begun to understand the psychological and physical issues that are at the root of pseudocyesis . Although the exact causes still aren't known , doctors suspect that psychological factors may trick the body into " thinking " that it'spregnant
When a woman feels an intense desire to get pregnant
👇 , which may be because of infertility , repeat miscarriages , impending menopause , or a desire to get married , their body may produce some pregnancy signs
( such as a swollen belly , enlarged breasts , and even the sensation of fetal movement ) . The woman's brain then misinterprets those signals as pregnancy , and triggers the release of hormones
👇( such as estrogen and prolactin ) that lead to actual pregnancy symptoms ✓ .

Interruption of the menstrual period
Swollen belly Enlarged and tender breasts ,

changes in the ni***es , and possibly milk production Feeling of fetal movements Nausea and vomiting Weight gain
These symptoms can last for just a few weeks , for nine months , or even for several years .
A very small percentage of patients with false pregnancy will arrive at the doctor's office or hospital with what feels like labor pains .

HEPATITIS B👌 HEPATITIS B is an infection that causes liver inflammation and damage. 👌How Do You Get Hepatitis B?The hepa...


👌 HEPATITIS B is an infection that causes liver inflammation and damage.

👌How Do You Get Hepatitis B?

The hepatitis B virus is transmitted when an infected person’s blood or body fluids (such as saliva, sweat or semen) enter your bloodstream.

👌Hepatitis B is spread through;

🎯Sharing IV needles
🎯Unprotected s*x
🎯Sharing razors or toothbrushes.
🎯From mother to newborn during the delivery process.

Hepatitis B is not a genetic disease, although a majority of chronic infections occur by transmission from mother to baby at the time of birth.

Eventually, the liver becomes so damaged that it stops working properly. 😫😫😫😫Treatment for hepatitis b involves very effective herbals medicines that suppress the system and reduce inflammation.


🥁Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B range from mild to severe. They usually appear about one to four months after you've been infected, although you could see them as early as two weeks post-infection. Some people, usually young children, may not have any symptoms.

🥁Hepatitis B signs and symptoms may include:

Abdominal pain
Dark urine
Joint pain
Loss of appetite
Nausea and vomiting
Weakness and fatigue
Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice).

Always observed your symptoms, visit a doctor for diagnosis .....

TOPIC : CRYPTIC PREGNANCY:  WHY IT GOES UNNOTICED 👇One in 450 pregnant women don’t even know they are pregnant until the...


One in 450 pregnant women don’t even know they are pregnant until they reach 20 weeks of pregnancy and one in 2,500 don’t know they are pregnant until labor.
The pregnancy can last for as long as two to five years.
This mysterious pregnancy is called Cryptic pregnancy or Stealth pregnancy.

A cryptic pregnancy is one that goes undetected or unnoticed until delivery.

It refers to a medically defined condition called ‘denial of pregnancy’. This means that you are pregnant, but the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels are too low to be detected in a blood or urine test.

A Cryptic Pregnancy is a pregnancy where there is NO detectable hCG in the mother's system, due to a hormonal imbalance in the mother. The fetus may go undetected by mother.
Cryptic pregnancies usually occur in women who have been on birth control methods such as contraceptive pills, tubal ligation (tubes tied to prevent the s***m from entering the fallopian tube), etc. These women come under the ‘least expected pregnancy category’ and experience common pregnancy symptoms such as fatigue and morning sickness mildly, or do not experience anything at all. These symptoms are mistaken as those of some other condition.

Several hormonal and psychological reasons can lead to cryptic pregnancy. However, the psychological causes are lower than the hormonal.
*Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): Small cysts form on the enlarged ovaries. Though not harmful or cancerous, they can cause hormonal imbalances in the body.
*Recent pregnancy: Hormones may take time to get back to normal after your pregnancy. If you are pregnant immediately, there would be imbalance causing a cryptic hormonalpregnancy.
*Low body fat could trigger a hormonal imbalance as in the case of athletes.
*Perimenopause is the time when the body starts showing up signs of progression to menopause. It can start as early as in the 30s, making the pregnancy go unidentified.
*Birth control pills such as Deprovera, Norplant, or Mirena Coil release more hormones which affect the normal pregnancy hormones making them vulnerable to pregnancy.
*High-stress levels can cause a cryptic pregnancy as they influence the hormones.

Even when the pregnancy is cryptic, it could send you some signals.

The symptoms of cryptic pregnancy are similar to a regular pregnancy. Note that the symptoms vary from one woman to the other.
•Nausea, •Vomiting, •Fatigue, •Food aversions
•Frequent urination, •Weight gain, •Heartburn
•Headaches, •Abdominal cramps, •Backache
•Metallic taste in the mouth
The symptoms could be similar to those of normal pregnancy.

Pregnancy remains a secret because of these reasons:
*You may have regular periods throughout the pregnancy, though the number of bleeding days may be less. Spotting and bleeding due to implantation could be mistaken for a regular period.
*Urine, blood tests and ultrasound show negative.
*You might have recurrent early labor signs such as contractions and period-like pain.
*Slow pregnancy belly growth as baby is at the back of the womb (at the spine).
*Fetal movements inside the womb are mistaken for gas and bloating.

👉What Happens To The Fetus In Cryptic Pregnancy?

In cryptic pregnancy, the development of the fetus is delayed and interrupted frequently, taking place at an extremely slow pace. But this does not necessarily affect the health of the fetus. The mother would go to hospital only when she has severe stomach and back cramps, that is, during labor.

👉How Can Pregnancy Go Undetected After Missed Periods?

Not all women have regular and monthly periods and a missed period may not bother them. Even if periods occur occasionally, spotting during pregnancy may be construed as menstrual bleeding. The irregular or less flow could be attributed to stress, menopause, or other health problems.

Continued Periods/Bleeding In Cryptic Pregnancy:

Most women continue getting their regular periods throughout the cryptic pregnancy, but this does not indicate a miscarriage. It can be heavy, light, or spot bleeding with a few large or small clots. The bleeding can be bright red, pink, brown, purple, orange, or black. It can be like a normal period, sporadic or random. The bleeding could sometimes last for weeks or months, but all it does is shed away the uterine lining. This results in little or no hCG.

In a normal pregnancy, the pregnancy test shows negative if it is taken too early or if you fail to follow the instructions correctly.
But in a cryptic pregnancy, the result is negative because the level of hCG is negligible. The placenta usually secretes hCG, which passes along the lining of the uterus. It builds up and is shown in the urine and blood. In cryptic pregnancy, the lining of the uterus sheds periodically without giving hCG the scope to build up and show up in tests.
Moreover, if you are not anticipating a pregnancy, you would not take the test.

👉How Does Cryptic Pregnancy Go Undetected In Ultrasound?

In a normal pregnancy, the doctor will do a trans-vaginal ultrasound 12 weeks into the pregnancy. After that, an abdominal ultrasound until the due week.
However, in most cryptic pregnancy cases, ultrasound scans cannot detect the growing fetus in a majority of women. This may be due to some abnormalities in the abdominal region or uterus.
Uterine retroversion: It is also known as tipped or tilted uterus because the uterus is inclined towards the back of the pelvis unlike a vertical position (as in a normal uterus). This position makes it difficult to see the fetus in an ultrasound. Retroversion happens due to one of the below reasons:
•The uterus does not move to the posterior position during puberty. .
•The growing baby stretches the ligaments, repositioning the uterus from its original place.
•Endometriosis (endometrium grows outside the uterus) or fibroids (non-cancerous growths in the uterus) can cause scarring, which will move the uterus to the anterior position.
•Bicornuate uterus: It is a congenital abnormality wherein the uterus is heart-shaped, with two horns. A wall splits the uterus either completely or partially. It can thus affect the reproductive abilities of a woman, and also result in cryptic pregnancy.
•Abnormal scar tissue: An abnormal scar tissue can happen due to abdominal surgery, C-section, or tummy tucks, among others. This scar tissue prevents the ultrasound waves from passing into the uterus, showing negative results on the scan.

Why Does Cryptic Pregnancy Have Longer Gestational Period?

The hCG will not pass into the maternal system as in a typical pregnancy. This prevents the body from generating signals essential for baby development. The fetus will thus grow slowly. The babies measure smaller than they should be at various pregnancy phases.
Also, regular periods during cryptic pregnancy prolong the gestational period. The heavier the period bleeding, the longer is the gestation.
In a cryptic pregnancy, you are not prepared for the baby and you don’t know what is happening inside your body. It could only complicate your pregnancy.

There would not be prenatal care as you are not aware of your pregnancy. The delivery, thus, turns out be unassisted or at home.
Prenatal complications such as hypertension, diabetes, or blood group incompatibility will go undetected putting both the mother and baby at risk.
The mother may not avoid certain habits such as smoking or drinking.

👉Cryptic Pregnancy Labor:
Just like cryptic pregnancy, its labor is also strange. It is long and protracted, and you will experience labor like pains for months before you enter into actual labor. The labor pains, which may initially seem like menstrual cramps, will get worse and hurt a lot more. This, coupled with the pains lasting for months, may prompt women to see a doctor, where the pregnancy may be confirmed. The doctor may try to induce labor or perform a C-section to deliver the baby.

👉Some of the Labor Symptoms in cryptic pregnancy are:

*Back pain, *Nausea, *Vomiting, *Hot flashes,
*Chills, *Dizziness, *Cold sweats, *Diarrhea
*Body ache, *Pain in the legs that radiates to the thighs, *Mood swings
*Pain in the hip and pelvic region, *Palpitations
*Swelling of the vaginal walls due to increased blood flow
*Va**na feeling bruised and painful
*Painful breasts. Sometimes, the pain can be shooting, sharp pain, *Vision problems
*Pressure on the cervix
*Stabbing pain in the sides, just like you get after running
*Tugging or pulling sensation in the abdomen which may or may not be painful.

During the reproductive age, if you are continuously experiencing certain pain or changes in the abdomen or pelvic, you should immediately see a doctor.
If you do not get regular periods, take repeated pregnancy tests. You should speak to your gynecologist about irregular periods and get a thorough checkup. You should also get a checkup done if you think you have entered menopause.
Cryptic pregnancy doesn’t seem real or at least we don’t see such things happening around us.

Cryptic pregnancy can put a woman in a tough position, especially if she is unprepared to look after a baby. A woman has to be mentally, emotionally, and physically prepared to bring a baby into the world and nurture it.
If you have irregular periods and the test results show otherwise, talk to a gynecologist. Do a regular scan.
Also, take care of yourself and eat healthy to promote a normal and healthy development of your baby.

Cryptic pregnancy is real

●BLOCKED FALLOPIAN TUBE●Fallopian tubes are female reproductive organs that connect the ovaries and the uterus. Every mo...


Fallopian tubes are female reproductive organs that connect the ovaries and the uterus. Every month during ovulation, which occurs roughly in the middle of a menstrual cycle, the fallopian tubes carry an egg from an o***y to the uterus.

Conception also happens in the fallopian tube. If an egg is fertilized by s***m, it moves through the tube to the uterus for implantation.

If a fallopian tube is blocked, the passage for s***m to get to the eggs, as well as the path back to the uterus for the fertilized egg, is blocked. Common reasons for blocked fallopian tubes include scar tissue, infection, and pelvic adhesions.


Blocked fallopian tubes don’t often cause symptoms. Many women don’t know they have blocked tubes until they try to get pregnant and have trouble.

In some cases, blocked fallopian tubes can lead to mild, regular pain on one side of the abdomen.

This usually happens in a type of blockage called a hydrosalpinx. This is when fluid fills and enlarges a blocked fallopian tube.

Conditions that can lead to a blocked fallopian tube can cause their own symptoms.

For example, endometriosis often causes very painful and heavy periods and pelvic pain. It can increase your risk for blocked fallopian tubes.

3 TYPES OF PREGNANCY1. Cryptic pregnancy2. Ectopic pregnancy3. Normal pregnancyA cryptic pregnancy is also called stealt...


1. Cryptic pregnancy
2. Ectopic pregnancy
3. Normal pregnancy

A cryptic pregnancy is also called stealth pregnancy. Is a pregnancy that testing methods may fail to detect, both urine and blood test will give a negative result. even ultrasound can not be detected. They are uncommon and most women are unaware that they are pregnant.
Until when a woman have cramps and feel like pushing something out, that is when she noticed that she is in labor and delivery the baby

Symptoms of cryptic pregnancy

👉Period like bleeding that resembles a regular menstrual cycle
👉Nausea and vomiting that is mistaken for another condition
👉 Fetal movement in the uterus mistaken for gas or indigestion

2. Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is one that is fertilised egg out side of the uterus. If left to grow, it may damage nearby organs and cause life threatening loss of blood. It can not be survive for a 3 months and it can not move to the uterus to grow and most never survive until birth.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy
👉 Va**nal bleeding
👉Pain in the pelvic
👉Abdomen pain
👉Shoulder and neck pain
👉Weak of the body
👉Serious backache

3. Normal pregnancy:

The normal pregnancy is that unborn baby spends around 38 weeks in the uterus, but the average length of pregnancy, or gestation, is counted at 40 weeks. Pregnancy is counted from the first day of the woman's last period, not the date of conception.

Symptoms of Normal pregnancy:
👉A missed period
👉Light bleeding spotting
👉Low abdominal cramps
👉Nausea with or without vomiting
👉Breast tenderness
👉Urinating alot
👉Mood swings
👉Fatigue and sleepiness
👉Food cravings or aversion
👉Bloating and constipation

Which type of abortion is also called a miscarriage ? 1 The U.S. medical community most often defines miscarriage ( also...

Which type of abortion is also called a miscarriage ?
1 The U.S. medical community most often defines miscarriage ( also called spontaneous abortion ) as the spontaneous loss of a nonviable , intrauterine pregnancy before 20 weeks gestational age ( GA ) , while stillbirth ( also called fetal death and intrauterine fetal demise ) describes this event at ≥ 20 weeks GA .

Miscarriage is a naturally occurring event , unlike medical or surgical abortions . A miscarriage may also be called a " spontaneous abortion . " Other terms for the early loss of pregnancy include : Complete abortion : All of the products ( tissue ) of conception leave the body .

What are the 3 types of miscarriage ?

Early miscarriage is when a pregnancy is lost in the first 3 months ( first trimester ) of pregnancy . ... Late miscarriage is when a pregnancy is lost after 12 weeks ( first trimester ) but before 24 weeks .... Stillbirth is the loss of a pregnancy after 24 weeks .

How many trimesters are in a 9 month pregnancy ...?? 1 There are three trimesters in a pregnancy : the first trimester ,...

How many trimesters are in a 9 month pregnancy ...?
? 1 There are three trimesters in a pregnancy : the first trimester , which lasts from weeks 1 to 13 , the second trimester , which lasts from week 14 to week 27 , and the third trimester , which lasts from week 28 to week 40 ( and up ) .


AFI(Amniotic Fluid Index) or AFP(Amniotic Fluid Pocket)
1. Accurate quantification of amniotic fluid volumes using current ultrasound technology remains challenging.
2. There are 2 methods currently use, the AFI and Amniotic Fluid pocket. No particular method has been shown to be superior to the other in direct comparison.
3. In several studies revealed that using the single pocket estimation method of amniotic fluid assessment in the third trimester to diagnose oligohydramnios, rather than the amniotic fluid index method, will result in fewer interventions without increasing adverse perinatal outcomes. (I)
4.Polyhydramnios as defined using amniotic fluid index is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes. More studies are needed looking at outcomes of polyhydramnios using the single pocket estimation definitions of polyhydramnios. (II-2)
5.There is insufficient literature to determine which method of amniotic fluid assessment is more reproducible than the other. (II-1)
6.It is proposed that the Chamberlain classification of amniotic fluid be used to define oligohydramnios (single deepest pocket [SDP] smaller than 2 cm in depth × 1 cm wide) and polyhydramnios (SDP greater than 8 cm in depth × 1 cm wide) for the initial assessment of amniotic fluid during routine obstetrical scanning. (I)

(IUD) of 12 weeks +_1 week.....ReportAGE : 20 YRS ULTRASOUND FWB TRIMESTER PREGNANCY LMP : 18 OCT • Single Intrauterine ...

(IUD) of 12 weeks +_1 week.....
AGE : 20 YRS ULTRASOUND FWB TRIMESTER PREGNANCY LMP : 18 OCT • Single Intrauterine Fetous seen with Cephalic presentation with Longitudina • No Fetal Moments and no Cardiac Flicker seen at time of scan . Measurements : Placenta is anterior Upper segment Grade 0 Maturity . Amniotic fluid amount is Adequate . BPD : -Measures : 1.6 cm . FL : - Measures : 1.0cm AC : - Measures : 4.5 cm Spines : - Normal Gestational Age : -12 weeks , 03 days IMPRESSION : . All the above ultrasonic features consistent with Intra U ( IUD )

Urinary Tract Infection - UTIUrinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common condition that affects millions of people each...

Urinary Tract Infection - UTI

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common condition that affects millions of people each year. They occur when bacteria enters the urinary tract and multiplies, causing an infection. UTIs can affect any part of the urinary tract, including the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra.

Symptoms of a UTI can include:

a strong, persistent urge to urinate
a burning sensation when urinating
passing frequent, small amounts of urine
cloudy, dark, bloody, or strange-smelling urine
feeling tired or shaky
fever or chills (a sign the infection may have reached the kidneys)
UTIs are more common in women than men, and they are especially prevalent in women who are pregnant or have recently given birth. Other risk factors for UTIs include having a weakened immune system, having a history of UTIs, and having certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or an enlarged prostate.

To prevent UTIs, it is important to practice good hygiene, such as wiping from front to back after using the toilet, and urinating after s*xual in*******se. Drinking plenty of water and avoiding things that can irritate the urinary tract, such as bubble baths or harsh soaps, can also help prevent UTIs.

If you suspect you have a UTI, it is important to see a healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment. Your healthcare provider will likely take a urine sample to test for the presence of bacteria and white blood cells, which are signs of an infection.

Treatment for a UTI typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to take the full course of antibiotics prescribed, even if you start feeling better before you've finished the medication. Drinking plenty of water can also help flush out bacteria from the urinary tract and speed up recovery.

In some cases, a UTI may recur or become a chronic condition. In these cases, your healthcare provider may recommend additional tests or treatments to determine the cause of the recurring infections and prevent future recurrences.

In conclusion, UTIs are common but can be easily treated with antibiotics. It is important to practice good hygiene and see a healthcare professional if you suspect you have a UTI to prevent complications and ensure proper treatment.


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