KS Training

We provide high quality EMS and First Aid educational programs, including Emergency Medical Technician courses, CEU classes, CPR, Bloodborne Pathogens.

At KS Training we have over 75 years of combined pre-hospital care experience. Ranging from rural to urban, BLS to ALS, our instructors Ken Smith and Chris Wuertz bring a wealth of experience and knowledge to the classroom.


Hyperoxia: Too Much of a Good Thing – Limmer Education, LLC

Excellent article on emerging research on why high-flow O2 may be too much of a good thing. People with O2 saturations of 94% or above (i.e. normoxic) do not require supplemental O2. Over oxygenation can cause nitrogen washout which can lead to atelectasis, decreasing the available alveoli for gas exchange.

limmereducation.com Research shows that routine and unchecked high-flow oxygen administration reaches toxic internal levels within minutes. However, despite updated education standards, many EMS providers are still resistant to change their tried and true method of excessive oxygen delivery to ALL patients, especially....

Limmer Education

A lot of EMT students don't realize how big of a difference there is between medical and trauma emergencies. Here are just a few important things to know. Full list at http://bit.ly/top10medem.

[10/18/19]   So tonight is the night! We start our 2019-2020 EMT Course at 6 pm tonight.

For those students that may not received (or ignored) the "Welcome" email we sent several days ago here are the important highlights

Here are some things you need to know about Friday…

Start Date: Friday October 18, 2019

Class Location: Southern Campbell Fire District
1050 Race Track Rd.
Alexandria, KY 41001

We will be meeting in the Training Room at the station. The front door (glass door under overhang) will be unlocked. The Training Room will be the 3rd door on the left as you come down the entrance hallway. They’re double doors so you shouldn’t miss them.


Please park to the LEFT of the station in the TANK park-n-ride area. This ensures that there is adequate parking for SCFD members in case of a call


We start PROMPTLY at 1800 hrs. (6 pm for those not familiar with military time)

It’s VERY IMPORTANT that you be in the classroom, in your seat before 6 pm. If you are just sitting down in your seat at 6 pm, then YOU ARE LATE!


- Introductions
- Discuss Rules & Policies
- We will go over the test taking and study skills you will need to succeed.
- We will also be doing some activities to help break the ice and help you to get to know your fellow students.

What to bring:

- Notebook/paper, pen/pencil to take notes
- A folder or portfolio or something similar to keep papers organized. You will be receiving a lot of skill sheets, notes, handouts during the course. It’s very important that you have a way of keeping them together and bringing them EVERY night to class.
- You should also bring any money that is due the first night of class and your driver license

If you have any questions please feel free to email us at [email protected] . If you are going to be late Friday or any night, please call me at 678-910-1883.

For our new students coming in Friday.....

Dr S Umakanth

[10/13/19]   We're a little less than 7 days away from the start of our 2019-2020 EMT Course!

If you are registered for the course you should be receiving an email shortly with important information about the first night of class.

If you don't receive an email contact us right away at [email protected] so we can get you the information and update the email we have on file for you.

Looking forward to meeting everyone and starting another 6 months of training awesome new EMTS!

Because of the many last minute inquiries we have been receiving about seats in our upcoming course we've extended the deadline for registration for this course to this Thursday, October 10th.

If you're on the fence about taking this course or are just now seeing this advertisement, please act NOW!

Any questions please feel free to contact us.

Today is the registration deadline for our 2019-2020 EMT Course!!

Don't miss your opportunity, register today!

Have questions? Email us at [email protected]

North American Rescue

The Lethal Triad is a self perpetuating cycle of homeostatic disruption started by sudden significant blood loss. Once started, the body quickly goes into a spiral of disfunction. The three parts of the triad are 1. Hypothermia ❄ and 2. Acidosis 🔥 both contributing to one another and both leading to increased clotting dysfunction called coagulopathy💧.
❄ Blood acts as a sort of radiator fluid, transporting thermal energy from heat-producing organs to the rest of the body maintaining body temperature within a very narrow range. If the human body deviates more than a single degree from normal temperature (37°C) we begin to feel very poorly. If the temperature deviates enough, the chemical reactions inside our body slow down and eventually stop. One of these reactions is the clotting cascade, the body's response to bleeding!💧
🔥 As a patient loses blood, it loses its ability to supply oxygen to the tissues and cells of the body. The inability to perfuse tissue is called shock. When the cells are unable to get enough oxygen they switch from clean aerobic metabolism over to dirty anaerobic metabolism. The result is that instead of producing lots of energy, a bit of water, and a bit of carbon dioxide, the cell is producing only a little energy and a lot more lactic acid. As the blood becomes more acidic (lower pH) the clotting process slows down even more! Bleeding continues.💧💧
❄🔥 As we get cold and begin to shiver, our muscles demand more oxygen to produce movement and heat. This increased metabolic demand without available oxygen increases lactic acid production. The more acidic the body gets, the less your muscles will activate in response to signals to shiver. More acid. More cold. More bleeding. 💧💧💧
So how do we interrupt this deadly cycle?
1. STOP THE BLEED! Use all available methods to mechanically control bleeding. Keep every drop of blood you can inside the body.
2. Airway & Respiration. Optimize oxygen delivery to those cells.
3. Circulation. If able, replace lost blood with whole blood to help build clots and carry oxygen.
4. Hypothermia. Prevent heat loss and actively rewarm.

#EMT #AEMT #paramedic #nurse #nurselife #physician #doctor #pa #prehospital #68w #CombatMedic #corpsman #CorpsmanUp #tacmed #tacticalmedicine #TCCC #TC3 #WEMT #REMT #remotemedicine #WFA #WFR #operationalmedicine #wildernessmedicine #medicine #lifesavingsolutions #savinglives #northamericanrescue

The deadline to register for this years class is fast approaching. If you've been considering taking an EMT course now is the time!

Go to http://www.kstraining.org and download your application today.

Questions? email us at [email protected]

Interesting article on the current recommendations on the use of REBOA for intra-abdominal hemorrhage. If you are not familiar with REBOA I recommend a Google search. It's an interesting use of a technology that dates back to the Korean War.

American College of Surgeons issues position statement on use of REBOA on civilian trauma patients... https://tsaco.bmj.com/content/4/1/e000376

Did you know that there is still room in our 2019 EMT Course? Registration is open! Go to http://www.kstraining.org to download your application packet today!

Illustrates the importance of seatbelts.

The #FOAMed Case: https://bit.ly/2nMueJj

• 18 y/o girl
• High-energy MVC, not wearing seat belt, thrown from car
• Severe back pain, with complete #paraplegia & anesthesia of lower extremities
• Stable vital signs, no palpable deformity


To those who follow our page...

We have been emailing out notifications about the upcoming to the area Fire/EMS agencies, however it appears that out mailing list is somewhat out of date.

So we're asking that anyone who is a member of a local department to please spread the word about the course. Feel free to print the application packet available at http://www.kstraining.org/Documents/KS%20Training%202019%20EMT%20Course%20Application.pdf and post it at your agency.

If you want a copy of the flyer please email me at [email protected].



It's almost Fall and you know what that means!

It's time for KS Training's next EMT Course!!

The course will start October 18, 2019 and will again be held at Southern Campbell Fire District.

Tuition this year is $625.

Click this link to download an application packet:

It's almost Fall and you know what that means!

It's time for KS Training's next EMT Course!!

The course will start October 18, 2019 and will again be held at Southern Campbell Fire District.

Tuition this year is $625.

Click this link to download an application packet: http://www.kstraining.org/Documents/KS%20Training%202019%20EMT%20Course%20Application.pdf


OK, so I'm about speak EMS educator heresy.

I don't like memorization acronyms like DCAP-BTLS. Especially during initial education. They become a crutch for EMT students that they lean on instead of actually learning what's behind the acronym. They can spit out the letters in machine-gun fashion.

But are not able to remember what the letters represent. Instead of Learning critical thinking, how to assess and form a differential diagnosis. So the fact that this article goes deeper into DCAP-BTLS is a good thing.

Memorization of acronyms does not necessarily translate to understanding; here's a breakdown of what DCAP-BTLS means.


Fixing a broken neck: an illustrated case journey

Neat little "cartoon" describing spinal decompression and fixation surgery secondary to a C2 Fx.

artibiotics.com When Mr Singh falls and fractures his neck the future looks uncertain... Follow his case journey through this illustrated story by Dr Ciléin Kearns (Artibiotics). This comic was made possible by the generous support of a collaborative Kickstarter with Brainbook , (a charity dedi

Very interesting article from Limmer Education about some much needed changes to the assessment process that is taught to EMT students. These changes reflect more accurately reflects the real-world and should help students better grasp the process.


For those folks that are Nationally Registered you need to be aware that NREMT has discontinued using the 2012 NCCP model for recording your recert info. That means any education you previously entered for your current recert cycle under the 2012 model may not be mapped correctly.

Going forward all your classes, con-ed, etc. should be entered under the 2016 NCCP model. NREMT recommends that you log in to your account and update your Manage Education page to the NCCP 2016 model. After you update your model, all of your education will be found on the transcript.

Updating your account now is especially important if you are due to recert next March in 2020. You don't want to have to go through and re-categorize all of your classes at the last moment.

This should be familiar to our recent students. We discussed both Cullen and Grey-Turner signs a couple of months ago.

The mnemonic is a good way to remember how to differentiate between the two.

#Repost @medictests with @make_repost
Grey-Turner’s Sign and Cullen’s Sign
Signs of Internal Bleeding are easy to find but, it can be harder to determine to the source of the bleed.

Grey-Turner’s sign and Cullen’s sign can be easily confused with one another because they are both characterized by the same physical findings in different locations.
Grey-Turner’s sign is located on the flanks.

Cullen’s sign is located around the umbilicus (periumbilical).
These signs can be seen when bleeding occurs inside the abdomen or in the retroperitoneal location. This is most commonly thought to be due to necrotizing pancreatitis, but it can also happen in other conditions such as an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and Ectopic Pregnancy.

The mnemonic for remembering how to distinguish between these signs:
Grey-TURNer’s sign is located when you TURN towards your flank and
CUllen’s sign is located around the Umbilicus

The day has finally arrived! NREMT skills test out for our 2018-2019 students! Good luck everyone, you have this! You guys Rock!


EMS Office Hours: Open to Everyone – Limmer Education, LLC

More info for our students prepping for the NREMT exam. Dan Limmer, the author of our textbook, is offering students the opportunity to attend his "office hours" webinar where he discusses the NREMT exam, reviews topics, and answers questions. You can register here:


limmereducation.com Each week Dan Limmer hosts a one hour office hours session for our Premium and Premium Plus EMTReview.com members to discuss any topic the student would like help with including but not limited to specific classroom/educational topics, career and on the job topics, and questions about the NREMT. We....

For our current students that are only a couple of weeks away from taking their NREMT tests.

Most people see at least one burn question on the NREMT. Here’s a primer for burn knowledge and burn formulas that will help on the exam:


10 Things You Should Know About Trauma Emergencies – Limmer Education, LLC

limmereducation.com Like our trauma patients, our thoughts on trauma care seem to go to extremes. We must balance prompt transport with adequate assessment and valuable on-scene care. While the need to transport our patients for surgical intervention is undeniable, the physical and mental toolboxes for determining crit...


How to use OPQRST as an effective patient assessment tool



EMScapades, March 13, 2019

A little humor for our students who are starting their ride time.

jems.com An exclusive EMScapades comic published by JEMS, March 13, 2019

Our current class hard at work on the Section 4 Test! Only 2 more section tests and then the final exam in May. Good luck everyone!


Preventing Reperfusion Injury During Cardiac Arrest

Short, interesting article on current research on post-ROSC reperfusion injuries. Keep in mind that it's 20-40% OHCA ROSC stats are strictly European stats and not US stats.

jems.com Use of a bundled approach to CPR and post-resuscitation care that includes one or more interventions known to reduce reperfusion injury is essential.

Current and former students have heard us talk about this new trend in how O2 therapy is being viewed. Worth the read.

Oxygen has been increasingly administered to acutely ill patients. In ambulance, ED, and cardiac care unit settings, studies have found that 50% to 84% of patients were exposed to hyperoxemia because of excessive oxygen. #FOAMed

Full study: https://bit.ly/2sLGRGP


This a fantastic post about how the littlest things can make a huge difference. Look beyond the chief complaint. See the patient, the person. Anyone can be taught the mechanical skills of EMS. But we can't teach them how to care. That has to come from within each of us.

The following was posted by James Dlutowski, City of Pittsburgh Paramedic, on Facebook 12/18/12

"An amazing thing happened today. When I trudged out of medic 5 this morning around 7, I wasn't particularly exhausted and it wasn't particularly busy overnight. I had to head down to Panera for the CQI Meeting at 8.

As I was putting my things in my car, I heard someone call my name. When I turned, a man around 20 years old stared me in the face. The look he wore was one of uncertainty. He said my... name again, and I asked how I could help him. Before I could answer, the man's arms were wrapped around me and I was getting a huge, warm hug from a perfect stranger. To be honest, had I had my handgun, I probably would have shot him. You don't lunge at someone in the hill district with outstretched arms.

The man asked if I remembered him. When I said no, he replied that he didn't expect to have had an impact on me, but assured me that my partner and I had changed his life forever last December. I instantly began searching my brain for some tragic, life threatening call with an excellent outcome from a year ago.

The man told me his name, gave me an envelope and said thank you and left. Our face to face interaction was very limited, but I could see that his face was ripe with emotions.

I sat in my car and opened the envelope. On the top of the letter were bold, uppercase letters which read "ONE HUNDRED MOMENTS YOU GAVE BACK TO ME". There was a brief introduction which explained why he sought us out.

The reason I couldn't remember the call was because the call was so nondescript. The young man explained in his letter how he had called 911 last year. The detail was for a non-emergency run for a 20 year old male who felt sick. It was in the Southside Flats on a narrow street. The street actually prompted some memories, because I remember my partner having to back all the way down to Carson because we couldn't make any turns onto any adjacent streets due to parking.

When we arrived at the man's apartment, at first there was no answer. When he opened the door, he immediately said he didn't need us anymore and that he was going to stay home. Paula and I offered to check him out and he reluctantly agreed. I remember he was slightly tachycardic, soaked in sweat and seemed very on edge.

After checking his vital signs and speaking to the kid, something just seemed wrong. There was no clinical indication of any life threatening event we could find, but the gut feeling was there. With a little prodding, he acquiesced to being transported for evaluation. We never did get him to verbalize a chief complaint of even allude to something that was bothering him. We talked a little about where he was from, his major in school and other idle conversation on the way to the hospital. That night when I wrote the chart was the last time until this morning I thought about that emergency call.

The letter explained that the young man had been pushed to his limit with family, social, work and school issues. He had been battling depression for some time and had a family history of depression with multiple relatively close family members committing suicide over the past quarter century.

The day he called 911, he called not to be transported to the hospital but instead so that we would come and find his body before his roommates came home. When he called for the ambulance, he had a handgun. When he disconnected the call, he put the gun into his mouth and pulled the trigger.

The gun was jammed. Before he had a chance to recover from him having pulled the trigger and nothing happening, there was a knock at the door. In the letter, he explained that he had picked such a mundane complaint because he expected it to take the ambulance longer to get there. He opened the door to usher us away, but was too afraid to be forceful about it as he was afraid he'd attract attention. He had two other guns sitting in on the kitchen table and was fully prepared to use them once we had left.

It wasn't in the cards for him. Not for concern for the patient, but for it being so mundane and the middle of the night, we corralled the patient into the ambulance and were on the way to the hospital before he could get himself back into the house.

The four pieces of paper that came after the letter's introduction contained one hundred things he did in the past year that he wouldn't have been able to do had we let him go back in that house. Here are some examples:

#12: Got to say goodbye to my grandmother instead of her saying goodbye to me.

#24: Woke up for the first day since childhood not dreading what the day would hold.

#48: Held my nephew the day he was born.

#62: Had a Starbucks coffee. (I know it doesn't seem important but the little things are life sized when you almost never get to do them again.)

#100: I gave this letter to the people who changed my life forever.

I sat in my car for twenty minutes, stunned. Enclosed were pictures of him and his friends, him holding his nephews and family Thanksgiving Dinner pictures. I even went and looked up the tripsheet to be sure I was remembering the right call.

I have preached to my students in both the class and field settings, as well as to my past partners, that it's not just the "big whistles" which make a difference. Holding a terrified Alzheimer's patient's hand on the way to the hospital can make more of a difference than intubating that cardiac arrest. I never thought that there was a chance that a call that I considered to be essentially of no consequence could I have made such an impact on a young man's life.

Humbled, I share this with Facebook world not to showcase mine and Paula's actions. It should be a reminder to my fellow EMS providers that while we are in a thankless job, we all need to realize that we make a difference every single day. We leave some footprint in someone's life on each and every ambulance call we respond, no matter how trivial it seems to us. To some extent, we can control if that footprint is destructive and makes a bad situation worse or if it is remembered fondly as someone who was there during a tough time.

I also want to remind my colleagues including paramedics, physicians, nurses, counselors, and anyone who has contact with any other person ever: things are not always what they seem.

Without knowing it, a kind word or a little observation can rewrite history. When speaking to a patient, not every non-emergency is absent of the opportunity to make an impact just because it's a non-emergency. Not every person with depression, a toe injury or the sniffles is "below us". Granted, not all of them require an ambulance, but the way you speak to the person and how much effort you put in to linking them with appropriate resources can go a very long way.

So I ask everyone, in all walks of life, to think before you act. Mind yourself and respect others, no matter how infuriating their behavior. This isn't limited to just health care. The outer shell of a person may seem strong and whole while peering into the soul reveals a hurricane of turmoil. One kind word or the lack of one harsh word can create a different ending."

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