Institute of Psychiatry Benazir Bhutto Hospital Rawalpindi

Institute of Psychiatry Benazir Bhutto Hospital Rawalpindi

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I need internship nursing
Motorway City Executive Block Islamabad
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Need CBT workshops in BBH,
what’s the procedure, notify me for this.

Thank you.
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Atleast 70% of the adult population use alcohol, to***co,and other narcotics, even after knowing their side effects. These population(atleast 80% of the people who use alcohol, to***co,…) use them bcoz they already have some sort of (preexisting) psychological problems/psychic disturbances/thought disorders (nearly same as that of amphetamine/psychedelic psychosis) {Also noted, unwanted thoughts and/or images (these images last for a fraction of second and may be not vivid) come in the minds of these population at their teenages or even in adult stage while in temples or doing poojas/… These populations do not like these thoughts and/or images at all. This happens atleast once in 5-10 times} . But, these population think that all these health issues are due to their body’s defect/fault. They blame their body. They blame their mind. They blame themselves. They blame God.But in fact, these are all wrong. They are unaware that all these health issues (psychological/psychiatric ) are caused/induced due to external factors like food/water problems, contaminations, intoxications/exposures like amphetamine, ketamine, methamphetamine, dex amphetamine, M**A, MDA,and other sympathomimetic amines, MAO inhibitors, ma*****na, other CNS stimulants, Hallucinogens, Psychedelics, delusion /delirium causing drugs/.... heavy metals like lead, arsenic,.../ chelating agents as such or complexed with heavy metal like lead, arsenic,../pesticides/insecticides,other drugs, chemicals, ….(as such or in combination with antineoplastic, narcotics, anticonvulsants, immunosupressants, analgesics, anesthetics,… and other masking agents). And so many/most of them then come to know about alcohol, to***co, may be due to some of their friends who might say with these all your problems will be solved or go away. And so they become addicted to such things, I think. Atleast 70-80% people using alcohol, to***co, ....take them primarily/mainly for avoiding psychological problem or for getting rid from psychological problem or something like that. And not for: Euphoria, enjoying,…. although they may feel these experiences after taking alcohol, to***co or other narcotics. At this point of time I want to mention, in this recent period, most of the people are aware of the side effects of alcohol, to***co or other narcotics. But even then 70% or More people use alcohol, to***co or other narcotics. This is in contrast to olden times when comparatively less no.of people use alcohol, to***co or other narcotics, even though many/most of the people then were not aware of the side effects of alcohol, to***co or other narcotics, i think. Think/study/research /investigate over this and why this has happened. Also noted, we wrongly conclude about people who use alcohol, to***co or other narcotics. We think that they are using them for euphoria, .... But this is not the case with atleast 70-80% of them. And wrongly and unknowingly we scold them, give comments on them,....... These psychological problems compels them to use alcohol, to***co or other narcotics, even after knowing their side effects; and not for Euphoria /enjoying,... Just think, if these people want to use alcohol, to***co, ....for enjoying, then they will use them only at enjoy time, and not whole day/anytime.
But when asked for the reason behind drinking these population make excuses that they have these family problems, that problems behind using alcohol,… but these are all wrong/excuses. These population don’t reveal that they have some health issue. If don’t believe me, ask them politely how they feel after using alcohol. They say that they feel normal/relaxed/better now. Means, before drinking alcohol they don’t feel normal, they don’t feel relaxed (This is related to psychology). Now he feels normal/better/relaxed, but noted still his family problems/this problem/that problem has not been solved. Means, these population already have psychological problems before drinking/using alcohol. And really these populations already have some sort of (preexisting) psychological problems/psychic disturbances. Even now, if you don’t believe me, see ch.5, Brain-Reward Mechanisms, starting page, in the book: Substance Abuse by Joyce et al, Fourth Edition.
Even now if you are not satisfied, let us see “What are the psychological problems and how they are caused/induced”. For this see Hallucinogens on Wikipedia, Google. (Some extracts of it given below :
Hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perception anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics, dissociatives, or deliriants. ........Hallucinations are not an uncommon symptom of amphetamine psychosis, but as they are not a primary effect of the drugs themselves. While stimulants do not induce hallucinations without abuse, the nature of stimulant psychosis is not unlike delirium.
L. E. Hollister's criteria for establishing that a drug is hallucinogenic are as follows:[1]
in proportion to other effects, changes in thought, perception, and mood should predominate;
intellectual or memory impairment should be minimal;
stupor, narcosis, or excessive stimulation should not be an integral effect;
autonomic nervous system side effects should be minimal; and
addictive craving should be absent.
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A debate persists on criteria which would easily differentiate a substance which is 'psychedelic' from one 'hallucinogenic'. Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 coined the term 'hallucination' from the Latin word "alucinari" meaning "to wander in the mind". The term 'psychedelic' is derived from the Ancient Greek words psychē (ψυχή, "mind") and dēloun (δηλοῦν, "to make visible, to reveal"), or "mind-revealing".
'A hallucinogen' and 'a psychedelic' may refer correctly to the same substance.
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The term "psychedelic" is applied somewhat interchangeably with "psychotomimetic"(means mimicking psychosis) and "hallucinogen
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One explanatory model for the experiences provoked by psychedelics is the "reducing valve" concept, first articulated in Aldous Huxley's book The Doors of Perception.[5] In this view, the drugs disable the brain's "filtering" ability to selectively prevent certain perceptions, emotions, memories and thoughts from ever reaching the conscious mind. (means due to these drugs these certain pereptions, emotions, memories, and thoughts reach the conscious mind. But in the absence of these drugs these certain pereptions, emotions, memories, and thoughts are selectively prevented from ever reaching the conscious mind ).
..(Here, what I predict: due to sympathomimetic drugs/CNS stimulants like amphetamine, metamphetamine, dexamphetamine, …..Hallucinogen, pscyhedelics,… the brain’s (filtering) abiliy to selectively prevent certain perceptions, emotions, memories and thoughts from ever reaching the conscious mind is affected and hence …..unwanted thoughts,…… come in mind, which the patient did not like/want at all. Due to these drugs/poisons/, his/her thinking is also affected. As a result, he/she becomes psychologically disturbed. And may become schizophrenic and/or become vulnerable to use alcohol, to***co,… and/or commit su***de.)
.(See, this brain's filtering ability to selectively prevent certain perceptions, emotions,....depends on associated nerves. Just think, what happens when these associated nerves get damaged /deterioted/......by some poisons/drugs/contaminations/intoxications/exposures/.... I don't think that this damage /deteriotion/...of associated nerves can be traced/detected by MRI /CT/......)
(I predict: just take a example that one is intoxicated/poisoned with amphetamine or other CNS stimulant chronically. This amphetamine /... causes release of dopamine and 5HT molecules from their stores and that too drastically compared to release of minor amount of these neurotransmitters in normal conditions. Means in normal conditions when need arises 50 molecules(say) get released from their stores. But when the need is over/completed, these molecules go back to their stores. In intoxication /poisoning by amphetamine, ... 50000 molecules get released from their stores and that too continuously < it inhibits monoamine transporter function and… For detail see Amphetamine on Wikipedia, Google> till amphetamine /....was present in the brain. As a result, the target neuron gets activated continuously firing, firing,.......till the above neurotransmitters are present. As a result, these neurons get damaged/deterioted /......gradually and their functions are affected. Noted, the serotonin system is involved with controlling of the behavioral, perceptual, and regulatory systems. This also includes mood, hunger, body temperature, sexual behavior, muscle control, and sensory perception. Serotonergic (5HT) neurons exert diverse and widespread functions in the brain. Dysfunction of the serotonergic system gives rise to a variety of mental illnesses including depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism and eating disorders.
Noted, amphetamine, dexamphetamine, M**A,..[which increases dopamine and 5HT levels drastically] causes psychosis [see literature. This is a well established fact. ]
Also noted, a range of drugs that reduce dopamine and/5HT activity [called antipsychotic drugs] have been found useful in the treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders that produce psychosis. These drugs have a broadly suppressive effect on most types of active behavior, and particularly reduce the delusional and agitated behavior characteristic of overt psychosis. The introduction of the first widely used antipsychotic drug, chlorpromazine(Thorazine), in the 1950s, led to the release of many schizophrenia patients from institutions in the years that followed.
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Many users of dissociatives have been concerned about the possibility of NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity (NAN). This concern is partly due to William E. White, the author of the DXM FAQ, who claimed that dissociatives definitely cause brain damage.[19] The argument was criticized on the basis of lack of evidence[20] and White retracted his claim.[21] White's claims and the ensuing criticism surrounded original research by John Olney.
In 1989, John Olney discovered that neuronal vacuolation and other cytotoxic changes ("lesions") occurred in brains of rats administered NMDA antagonists, including P*P and ketamine
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Psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants have a long history of use within medicinal and religious traditions around the world including shamanic forms of ritual healing and divination, initiation rites, and rituals of syncretistic movements such as União do Vegetal, Santo Daime, and the Native American Church.
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Hallucinogenic substances are among the oldest drugs used by human kind, as hallucinogenic substances naturally occur in mushrooms, cacti and a variety of other plants
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After World War II there was an explosion of interest in hallucinogenic drugs in psychiatry, owing mainly to the invention of L*D
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At the beginning of the 1950s, the existence of hallucinogenic drugs was virtually unknown to the general public in the West. However this soon changed as several influential figures were introduced to the hallucinogenic experience. Aldous Huxley's 1953 essay The Doors of Perception, describing his experiences with mescaline, and R. Gordon Wasson's 1957 Life magazine article (Seeking the Magic Mushroom) brought the topic into the public limelight. In the early 1960s, counterculture icons such as Jerry Garcia, Timothy Leary, Allen Ginsberg and Ken Kesey advocated the drugs for their psychedelic effects, and a large subculture of psychedelic drug users was spawned. Psychedelic drugs played a major role in catalyzing the vast social changes initiated in the 1960s
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Despite prohibition, the recreational, spiritual, and medical use of psychedelics continues today(At this point of time, I want to mention : last year or something, in Maharashtra, or somewhere in India, a huge consignment of Ketamine in truck (s) which was being trafficked(smuggling) was seized by police. Just think, what these corrupted people are going to do with so much ketamine. What are the purposes of these corrupted people behind so much ketamine? Just think. If you don’t believe me, then why so many su***des around? Why so many road accidents around? Why so many people fall prey to alcohol, to***co,…. Why so many missing cases around? Also, the no.of schizophrenic(psychosis) patients are increasing day by day. Why? ).
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Several medical and scientific experts, including the late Albert Hofmann, advocate the drugs should not be banned, but should be strongly regulated and warn they can be dangerous without proper psychological supervision.[41]
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How hallucinogens affect the brain
Main article: Long-term potentiation
L*D, pe**te, psilocybin, and P*P are drugs that cause hallucinations, which can alter a person’s perception of reality. L*D, pe**te, and psilocybin cause their effects by initially disrupting the interaction of nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin.[42] It is distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, where the serotonin system is involved with controlling of the behavioral, perceptual, and regulatory systems. This also includes mood, hunger, body temperature, sexual behavior, muscle control, and sensory perception. Certain hallucinogens, such as P*P, act through a glutamate receptor in the brain which is important for perception of pain, responses to the environment, and learning and memory. Thus far, there have been no properly controlled research studies on the specific effects of these drugs on the human brain, but smaller studies have shown some of the documented effects associated with the use of hallucinogens.
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..Louis Lewin started out in 1928 by using the word phantastica as the title of his ground-breaking monograph about plants that, in his words, "bring about evident cerebral excitation in the form of hallucinations, illusions and visions [...] followed by unconsciousness or other symptoms of altered cerebral functioning". But no sooner had the term been invented, or Lewin complained that the word "does not cover all that I should wish it to convey", and indeed with the proliferation of research following the discovery of L*D came numerous attempts to improve on it, such as hallucinogen, phanerothyme, psychedelic, psychotomimetic, psychogenic, schizophrenogenic, cataleptogenic, mysticomimetic, psychodysleptic, and entheogenic.
The word psychotomimetic, meaning "mimicking psychosis", reflects the hypothesis of early researchers that the effects of psychedelic drugs are similar to naturally-occurring symptoms of schizophrenia, though it has since been discovered that some psychedelics resemble endogenous psychoses better than others. P*P and ketamine are known to better resemble endogenous psychoses because they reproduce both positive and negative symptoms of psychoses, while psilocybin and related hallucinogens typically produce effects resembling only the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.[44] While the serotonergic psychedelics (L*D, psilocybin, mescaline, etc.) do produce subjective effects distinct from NMDA antagonist dissociatives (P*P, ketamine, dextrorphan), there is obvious overlap in the mental processes that these drugs affect and research has discovered that there is overlap in the mechanisms by which both types of psychedelics mimic psychotic symptoms.[45][46][47] One double-blind study examining the differences between DMT and ketamine hypothesized that classically psychedelic drugs most resemble paranoid schizophrenia while dissociative drugs best mimicked catatonic subtypes or otherwise undifferentiated schizophrenia
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At this point of time, I want to mention: Just take the example of our thinking. There are more than 10 aspects in thinking itself, I think. And to each of these aspects, there is one or more than one associated nerve, I think. Just think, if these nerves are affected by some drugs/poisons /......, what will be the scene of our thinking. And what will be our behaviour? (Noted our behavior mainly depends on our thinking, and to some extent on emotions/feelings/sensations, I think. Also noted, emotions, feelings, sensations,….are associated with nerves which can be deterioted/damaged by contaminations/intoxications/exposures,…as mentioned above ). And what will be our situation? Doesn't it look like a psycho/psychosis? (Noted, some of these nerves alongwith some regions in the brain, may be like corpus striatum(comprising of neostriatum ) are involved in the prevention of unwanted thoughts and/or images from ever reaching the conscious mind. And this is the root cause behind all psychiatric/psychological problems including (but not limited to) eating disoders(esp.bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa ), obsessive-compulsive disorders, scizophrenia, ...... The above mentioned thinking problem/psychological problem can be simply diagnosed/tested as described above (unwanted thoughts and/or images while in temple or doing poojas). If this (unwanted thoughts and/or images) happens, then it means something wrong happened to these nerves and/or regions of the brain with or without neurotransmitter(esp. dopamine and serotonin) dysregulation due to external factors like food/water problems, contaminations, intoxications/exposures/poisonings like amphetamine, ketamine, methamphetamine, dex amphetamine, M**A, MDA,and other sympathomimetic amines, MAO inhibitors, ma*****na, other CNS stimulants, Hallucinogens, Psychedelics, delusion /delirium causing drugs/.... heavy metals like lead, arsenic,.../ chelating agents as such or complexed with heavy metal /pesticides/insecticides,other drugs, chemicals, ….(as such or in combination with antineoplastic, narcotics, anticonvulsants, immunosupressants, analgesics, anesthetics,…).{ But this something wrong in the nerves and/or regions of the brain cannot be traced by MRI, CT,….(may be) }. This means that if this problem and the real reason/cause behind this are not traced/found out, then psychiatric problems like schizophrenia will definitely ensue leaving you mentally and psychologically harrased to such a extent that suicidal thoughts may come in mind (esp. if you are a good man and fighting for good cause against bad/corrupted people or good man but not fighting for good cause). Also, you are prone to be affected by dreadful diseases like paralysis/Parkinson’s disease/heart diseases/cancer/B.P./diabetes/….. But if this problem and the real reason/cause behind this are traced/found out, then you will live a happy and healthy life till your last breath. Believe me. I am not saying that blindly accept my words, but don't blindly deny them.

Also, see :
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Small vessel cerebral vascular changes following chronic amphetamine intoxication. In: Ellinwood E Therapy with vitamin D in animal models of sepsis improves blood coagulation parameters in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and reduces the levels of systemic inflammatory products in body. Vitamin D is potentially an attractive therapeutic agent for sepsis given its low cost and low risk of toxicity and side effects. [ J Infect. 2011 Nov;63(5):321-6]. Average serum vit D level in Indians are 10 -20ng/dl(normal >50ng). Vit D3 exerts protective effects during infections by enhancing immunity in phagocytes and epithelial cells.[ Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014 May;1317:76-83], Kilbey M, eds. Co***ne and other stimulants. New York: Plenum Press, 1977: 241
Death in amphetamine users: Causes and rates. In: Smith DE, ed. Amphetamine use, misuse, and abuse. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1979: 169-188
A peculiar form of social behaviour induced in mice by amphetamine. Behaviour 1946; 1: 60-70
The arrest of doctors, pharmacists, and other medical licentiates. In: Smith DE, ed. Amphetamine use, misuse and abuse. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1979: 297
Amphetamine psychosis. Maudsley monograph number 5. London: Oxford University Press, 1958.
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Neuropsychological assessment of undergraduate ma*****na and L*D users. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1974; 31: 707-711
Clinical and psychophysiological effects of cannabis in long term users. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. Pharmacology of ma*****na, New York: Raven press, 1976.
Ta***ic cannabis use in India. J Psychedelic Drugs 1977; 9(3):
Mayor's Committee on ma*****na, Wallace GB, Cunningham EV. The ma*****na problem in the city of New York; sociological, medical, psychological and pharmacological studies. Lancaster, PA: The Jaques Cattell Press, 1944.
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These above(psychological problems) are the real reasons/causes behind using alcohol, to***co, ....by more than 70% people, I strongly predict. They already have some sort of (preexisting) psychological problems/psychic disturbances. Also, noted that in 2007, in Nair Hospital there were posters on the walls mentioning somewhat like this: People are more affected with psychological problems than any other diseases/disorders. And these are affecting their life more(I don't remember well now) than any other. Even now, don't believe then see below:
To date, four studies have been published that indicate that paranoid delusions of rerefence, control, and persecution can be regularly induced through either oral or intravenous administration. Amphetamine psychosis can be reliably induced in a little over 24 hr using a total oral dose of 400-540mg (see p.10)
Amphetamine-induced psychosis in man closely corresponds to paranoid schizophrenia. Amphetamine-induced behavioural changes in animals mimic behaviours of paranoid schizophrenics. (See p.18). Also Note in man: Amphetamine-induced psychosis and in animals: just Amphetamine-induced behaviour Why so? Just think/research /investigate/study over this matter at a very high level. Just think who, who and who have done our brain washings and how, how and how and through what, what and what since our childhood. At present, amphetamine psychosis appears to most closely fit the naturally occurring paranoid schizophrenic state. See: p.13, Amphetamine psychosis: individuals, settings, and sequences. In: Ellinwood EH, Cohen S, eds. Current concepts in amphetamine abuse. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Mental Health, 1972; 143-157 ( available on internet.)
At this level, why should not we doubt "naturally occurring paranoid schizophrenic state". Means why we should not think that the disorder/disease which doctors say "naturall occurring paranoid schizophrenic state" is actually caused/induced in man/woman due to external factors like food/water problems, contaminations, intoxications/exposures/poisoning like amphetamine, ketamine, methamphetamine, dex amphetamine, M**A, MDA,and other sympathomimetic amines, MAO inhibitors, ma*****na, other CNS stimulants, Hallucinogens, Psychedelics, delusion /delirium causing drugs/.... heavy metals like lead, arsenic,.../ chelating agents as such or complexed with heavy metal like lead, arsenic,../pesticides/insecticides,other drugs, chemicals, ….(as such or in combination with antineoplastic, narcotics, anticonvulsants, immunosupressants, analgesics, anesthetics,… and other masking agents). Also please noted: CNS stimulants, Hallucinogens, Psychedelics, delusion /delirium causing drugs,ma*****na,....were available from plant source and also being used since time unknown when there was no medical science or under development. Don't believe, then see Hallucinogens on Wikipedia, Google.( Some extracts of it given below :
Hallucinogenic substances are among the oldest drugs used by human kind, as hallucinogenic substances naturally occur in mushrooms, cacti and a variety of other plants
..
..
Traditional religious and shamanic use
Main article: Entheogen
Historically, hallucinogens have been commonly used in religious or shamanic rituals. In this context they are referred to as entheogens, and they are used to facilitate healing, divination, communication with spirits, and coming-of-age ceremonies. Evidence exists for the use of entheogens in prehistoric times, as well as in numerous ancient cultures, including the Rus', Ancient Egyptian, Mycenaean, Ancient Greek, Vedic, Maya, Inca and Aztec cultures. )
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THE LEGEND! - Dr. Kashif - you are amazing Sir, Masha'Allah.

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